Umarex S&W 586 Stocked Part 1

Umarex S&W 586 Stocked Part 1

The revolving Carbine-Pistol has a history

By Dennis Adler

In 1855 the U.S. Cavalry was issued a large caliber, single shot U.S. Springfield pistol with a detachable shoulder stock. It was intended for combat at longer ranges than pistols, but more efficiently than the Model 1855 U.S. Springfield rifles being carried by the infantry.

When is a handgun not a handgun? When it is a Pistol-Carbine. The idea of taking a handgun and attaching a shoulder stock to the butt, thus making it more suitable for shooting accurately at greater distances goes as far back as the mid 1800s. One of the earliest and most successful designs was the .58 caliber, single shot, U.S. Springfield Model 1855 Pistol-Carbine, which was derived from the 1855 U.S. Springfield Rifled Musket. The Pistol-Carbine was designed by the U.S. Ordnance Department specifically for use by the cavalry, as it provided both a saddle pistol and, with the detachable stock, a carbine that was reasonably effective, both on horseback, or for dismounted cavalry.

In 1855 the U.S. Cavalry was also issued the Colt 3rd Model .44 caliber Dragoon with a detachable shoulder stock (two pistols one stock), or the Colt 1851 Navy as a standard issue sidearm. The Navy could also be fitted with a detachable shoulder stock.

Someone wrote in recently asking if “Carbine” could be applied to a pistol, since it is commonly associated with a shorter barreled or more compact rifle, not a handgun. The answer is yes; a shoulder stocked handgun, particularly one with a longer barrel, is also called a “Carbine” or Carbine-Pistol, and the idea of building them, whether single shot, revolver, semiautomatic or full auto has continued almost uninterrupted from the 1850s to the present day.

In 1879 Smith & Wesson introduced a long barreled version of its S&W American topbreak revolver with a detachable shoulder stock. The S&W Model 320 is the historical basis (although loosely interpreted) for the shoulder stock attachment now available for the Umarex S&W Model 586 (and nickel 686) pellet-firing revolvers. Attaching this very modern-looking, adjustable shoulder stock to the Model 586 makes it into a Carbine-Pistol, a very appealing addition to the CO2 airgun market.

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Origins and alterations

Attaching a very modern-looking, adjustable shoulder stock to an Umarex S&W Model 586 pellet-firing revolver is actually a very appealing addition to the airgun market, and it is a concept that has a basis in S&W history dating back to 1879 and the S&W Model 320, a longer-barreled topbreak design chambered in .320 S&W caliber and sold with a detachable shoulder stock. But this unusual S&W model came along well after shoulder stocked revolvers were regarded as a routine alteration by Colt’s, which introduced its first shoulder stocked revolvers in 1851, the .44 caliber 3rd Model Dragoon and .36 caliber 1851 Navy. Dragoon production continued through 1861 with the total number over a 10 year period reaching 10,500 of which approximately 4,330 were for the Cavalry. Of that number, 946 were supplied with detachable shoulder stocks. As noted by late Colt Historian R.L. Wilson, “Government issued Pistol-Carbines were in pairs, with only an issue of a single matching detachable shoulder stock.”

Colt’s 3rd Model Dragoon was manufactured with a removable shoulder stock. Intended for the U.S. Cavalry, the “Carbine-Pistol” was specially designed with cutouts in the base of the recoil shield and large “4th” screws at the back of the frame to engage the yoke of the shoulder stock. A channel cut into the base of buttstrap, corresponding to a latch at the bottom of the yoke, was used to lock the stock to the frame.

For the 1851 Navy, there were three basic versions of the elegant octagonal barreled repeater, one with a square back triggerguard, another with a round triggerguard, and a variation with an oval triggerguard. All there were built with the option of mounting a shoulder stock. In terms of popularity, the 1851 Navy was the .38 caliber revolver of its day and by 1855 it had been adopted by the U.S. government as its standard issue sidearm. The Ordnance Department ultimately purchased a total of 35,000 Navy models but the total production of the 1851 Navy (as a percussion pistol) continued through 1873 and amounted to more than 295,000 guns. Of those thousands were equipped with detachable shoulder stocks during their production history.

From plain 1851 Navy to deluxe, engraved, and shoulder stocked examples. Similar presentation models engraved by Gustave Young were given to Elisha King Root upon his retirement from Colt’s and as a gift by Samuel Colt to then U.S. Secretary of War Jefferson Davis (1852-1857 under President Franklin Pierce). This example, serial number 90140, contained in an English brass bound mahogany presentation case was made for sale in London.

Interestingly, the idea for adding a shoulder stock to the Colt revolvers may have come from the U.S. Secretary of War, under President Franklin Pierce. A Brigadier General in the Mexican-American War, Pierce appointed West Point graduate and former U.S. Army Colonel, Jefferson Davis to his cabinet in 1853. Davis served as Secretary of War throughout Pierce’s term, which ended with an unsuccessful bid for reelection. It is believed that Davis suggested the idea of putting shoulder stocks on the 1851 Navy, as well as developing canteen style shoulder stocks, which were used during Civil War. By then Davis was a U.S. Senator from Mississippi but with growing calls for secession and tensions growing between Washington and the Southern States he resigned and accepted the Presidency of the Confederate States of America on February 18, 1861, two weeks before Abraham Lincoln’s inauguration! Though it is not an absolute certainty, it is very likely that Jefferson Davis was the man who convinced Samuel Colt to design shoulder stocks for the 1851 Navy and 3rd Model Dragoon, creating the first revolving Carbine-Pistols.

Standard versions of the 1851 Navy were produced with detachable wood shoulder stocks for the Cavalry, so the guns could also be used as a revolving carbine at intermediate ranges where more precise aiming and a solid hold proved beneficial. (Photo Courtesy Rock Island Auction Co.)

The most successful 19th century Carbine-Pistol

A year before the start of the Civil War, Samuel Colt had introduced the most advanced and powerful medium frame handgun of his career, the .44 caliber Model 1860 Army, a lighter yet stronger gun than its predecessors the 1860 Army was built to withstand the pressures of .44 caliber loads formerly limited to the heavier Dragoons.  Not only was the 1860 Army lighter, but smaller, measuring 13-5/8 inches overall with an 8-inch barrel, compared to the 3rd Model Dragoon at just under 14-inches with a 7-1/2 inch barrel. The extra 1/2 inch in barrel length gave the 1860 Army a bit more weight up front and a longer sight radius.

The ultimate shoulder stocked revolver of the Civil War era was the Colt 1860 Army, a .44 caliber six-shooter with an 8-inch barrel and for the U.S. military (during the Civil War) built with a special frame that could mount a solid wood shoulder stock converting the Cavalry sidearm into a reasonably accurate Carbine-Pistol. Like the 3rd Model Dragoon the guns were usually issued in pairs with a single stock.

When fitted with a detachable shoulder stock, the military version of the 1860 made a reasonably accurate six shot carbine. Military versions had notched recoil shields, a fourth screw in the frame and a notch in the buttstrap to mount the detachable shoulder stock.

In this picture from a Guns of the Old West article, the author tests a Pietta reproduction of the original 1860 issue shoulder stocked Army model. The shoulder stock gave the .44 caliber revolvers the improved accuracy of a carbine, making them far more versatile weapons in the hands of the U.S. Cavalry. Approximately 4,000 fluted cylinder models (like the style shown) were manufactured all with frames cut for mounting a shoulder stock. The majority of military 1860s with the later rebated cylinder were also supplied cut for a shoulder stock.

Other stock options

Remington also had a revolving Carbine-Pistol but with a fixed stock, like a rifle, and it was offered as a long barrel version of the Army and Navy revolvers in .44 and .36 calibers, respectively. Beginning in 1868 Remington began converting the long guns to .46 rimfire and .38 centerfire metallic cartridges. The three versions shown in this article are comprised of a .44 centerfire and two .38 rimfire models. The guns were usually fitted with 28-inch octagonal barrels.

Colt didn’t have the entire market cornered for Carbine-Pistols, but Remington went off in another direction with its .44 caliber Army and .36 caliber Navy models building long barreled cartridge conversions around 1869 to 1871 in with permanently attached shoulder stocks making them into revolving rifles.

Smith & Wesson was second only to Colt’s when it came to the popularity of its innovative handguns in the 1870s. Pictured in this article, are a variety of topbreaks including a Model 320 revolving rifle with detachable shoulder stock. This example has a 20-inch barrel and is chambered in .320 S&W caliber. (The second gun is a Second Model American nickel plated, with an 8-inch barrel in .44 American. The third gun is a rare Ludwig Loewe Russian Model in .44 Russian with 6-1/2 inch barrel. The bottom example is a Number 3 Target chambered .32-44 caliber with a 6-1/2 inch barrel).

Smith & Wesson was second only to Colt’s when it came to the popularity of its innovative handguns in the 1870s. Pictured are a variety of models, at top, S&W’s Model 320 revolving rifle with detachable should stock. This example has a 20-inch barrel is nickel plated and in the standard .320 S&W caliber. The second gun is a Second Model American nickel plated, with an 8-inch bbl and chambered in .44 American. The third gun is a rare Ludwig Loewe Russian Model in .44 Russian with 6-1/2 inch barrel. The bottom example is a Number 3 Target chambered .32-44 caliber with a 6-1/2 inch barrel. (Mike Clark Collection/Collectors Firearms)

So, there is more than a little history behind this shoulder stocked Umarex S&W Model 586 pellet-firing Pistol-Carbine. Since the original S&W Pistol-Carbine was only a .32 caliber (7.65mm), the 4.5mm airgun is actually closer to the original S&W than any of its larger caliber counterparts!

This new combination of pellet-firing S&W CO2 revolver with a modern adjustable shoulder stock may be steeped in firearms history, but will it make some history of its own as an impressively accurate Carbine-Pistol?


7 thoughts on “Umarex S&W 586 Stocked Part 1”

  1. I would like to mention that the 1855 pistol/carbine from Springfield is the most beautiful regarding balance of symmetry and aesthetics.
    One more, ugly, comment though.
    Is it possible not to repeat the photos’ comments in the text also?

    • I try not to, but I also realize that some folks skim the article, look at the photos, read the captions and not the whole article. You are not one of them! I repeat important info in the captions for that reason, but I try to avoid it, or at least reword it. I’ll try not to duplicate too often.

      The Springfield made a great pistol, not once but twice. In the early post Civil War years, General Wm. T. Sherman had Springfield build a small number of Trapdoor pistols based off the rifle. They were experimental for the Cavalry to use as a large caliber, cartridge-loading horse pistol. Not too may were made and the idea proved impractical.

      • In your interactions and discussions with airgun manufacturers, have any of them said anything about coming out with a CO2 powered flintlock replica pistol or rifle with a rifled barrel to shoot 0.177 caliber pellets?

        Right now, flintlocks are a neglected part of firearm history that are ripe for airgun replicas.

        • Not yet. The momentum seems to be behind modern guns. I have tried (and am still trying) to work out a project to make a CO2 powered, pellet cartridge loading Richards-Mason 1851 Navy conversions, but that has a slim to none chance of happening. A flintlock would be even harder, though that is the configuration of the 19th century Girardoni air pistols and rifles built c.1810-1820. Back to the Future?

  2. A detachable stock for the S&W 586 pellet revolver, I may have to try it.

    That 1855 Springfield pistol carbine pictured at the top is a beautiful pistol. The historic flintlock pistols and rifles were very stylish compared to most of today’s drab pistols and rifles. I’d like to see airgun manufacturers start making some CO2 powered replicas of flintlock pistols and rifles.

    • The Springfield along with the 19 th century percussion and cartridge revolvers would be welcomed additions to the airgun market. It seems however that most manufacturers choose to ignore the historical airgun market. It is truly amazing that there are no airgun Colt and Remington percussion replicas.

    • Actually, awhile back a British company named Brocock in Redditch, Worcestershire, England, sold an 1851 Navy that fired .22 caliber pellet cartridges, as well as seven other old west designs including the 1875 Remington, Colt 1877 Thunderer, and Colt Bisley. According to the Blue Book of Airguns, the pistols were manufactured for Brocock in Italy by Pietta and Uberti. The airguns used a Brocock version of a Saxby-Palmer Tandem Air Cartridge. They called theirs the BACS (Brocock Air Cartridge System). The cartridge itself held the air pressure, around 2,700 psi, with a special valving system (located where the primer would be on a centerfire cartridge) opened by the pistol’s firing pin, which in turn released the air to fire the pellet from a screwed on nosecone. They averaged around 410 fps. They were outlawed in Great Britain in 2004 and would be a rare find today because the 2004 ruling forced owners to get a Section 1 firearms certificate (costly and hard to acquire) or turn them in to the local police station for destruction. They could not be traded or even exported.

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