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Education / Training First shot: Yes or no? Part 1

First shot: Yes or no? Part 1

by Tom Gaylord, a.k.a. B.B. Pelletier

Before we begin, our Russian reader, duskwight, posted a link to the recoilless spring-piston rifle he has made from scratch. We have watched him work on this project for the past three years, and it is finally coming together.

The gun in the picture is missing the stock and the barrel shroud, but that allows you to see the action parts better. This level of ingenuity puts me in mind of the New Zealand motorcyclist, Bert Munroe, who built his 1920 Indian Scout motorcycle into a bike that broke the 200 m.p.h. barrier at Bonneville! We will get a full report on this incredible airgun, as soon as duskwight has time to stock it and test it a bit. I can’t wait!

duscombe rifle
This is the first look at the dual-opposed piston duscombe air rifle, designed and hand made by reader duskwight.

Today I have a single topic to address. I happened to shoot a pretty good group last week, and Edith wanted me to share it with you.

I was at the range with several guns, including the Rogue, whose next report is coming this week. One of the firearms was my 1920 Savage in .250-3000 (.250 Savage) caliber. I was testing a new load and wanted to see how good it was for the very first shot from a cold gun; because when you’re hunting, that’s the shot that counts the most. Usually, when I shoot groups at the range, the gun barrel is warm; but when I hunt, the rifle has to put the first shot where I want it from a cold barrel, or it doesn’t count.

1920 Savage rifle
The Savage model 1920 is a bolt-action rifle made on the Mauser action. It’s both slim and lightweight and has a steel buttplate, but the cartridge it’s chambered for is a real pussycat, so I don’t mind one bit.

.250 Sabage round
The .250 Savage round (center), flanked by a 5.56mm on the left and a 30-06 on the right. The .250 Savage was also called the 250-3000, because it was the first commercial cartridge to achieve 3,000 f.p.s. (with an 87-grain bullet).

So, I shot this rifle about every 10 minutes or longer — leaving enough time between each shot that the barrel never had a chance to heat up. As the day progressed, the breeze picked up, so the final 5 shots were in a 20 m.p.h. wind! The target was at 100 yards. There was no fouling shot. The first shot came from a clean barrel — I think! Maybe it wasn’t clean — I just don’t remember.

The first shot went off before I was ready, and the crosshairs in the scope were not where I wanted them to be — I hadn’t settled in. I was unable to call this shot because the dot at the center of the fine reticle was still moving around. It had been four months since I last fired this rifle, and I forgot what a light trigger it has. After that, though, I was able to release every shot when I wanted to, until the final one that went off too soon, with the rifle too far to the right. That shot was called to the right, and it landed where I called it.

The 10-shot group measures 1.509 inches between centers, but the 8 shots that I had good control over grouped in 0.959 inches. Any of these 10 shots would be a minute-of-deer-or-antelope out to 200 yards. I’m quite pleased with this group, as it does represent where the first shot from the rifle will go. Because this is a hunting rifle, that’s very important. And it got me thinking about airguns. Do you know where the first shot from your air rifles goes?

.250 Savage group
This is the group of first shots from the .250 Savage. Given that the wind was blowing up to 20 mph part of the time, I would say this is an accurate representation of what this rifle will do in the field.

How does this apply to us?
Last week, after showing you some pretty bad groups from my Beeman R1, I received advice that I needed to either warm it up or wake it up by shooting for a while to achieve the optimum accuracy. But that’s not how a hunting rifle works, is it? A hunting rifle has to hit with the first shot from a cold barrel. Yes, I realize that airgun barrels don’t actually heat up when the guns are fired — it’s just a euphemism we use for getting the lubricants in the powerplant flowing or distributed correctly for optimum performance. Or whatever!

The point is — and there really is a point to this — where does your air rifle hit on the first shot? Have you ever tested your gun that way?

Time to walk the walk?
We do a lot of talking about shooting on this blog. Maybe it’s time for us to get up out of our recliners and try something real for a change — a first-shot accuracy test. Take your favorite air rifle and shoot a group of 10, with each shot you fire being a first shot. To do that, you need to wait a long time between each shot. How long should you wait? Longer than you think, probably. Each air rifle will be different, but I would say to wait at least 30 minutes between shots and longer would be better. A day would be ideal. Yes, I said a day!

The goal would be the same one I was after with my Savage. You’re trying to see if you can count on the first shot from that rifle going where you expect. You may not shoot the tightest group the rifle is capable of — in fact I doubt very much that you will. But if it’s a good rifle, you should still do okay. This time, though, it’s important where the pellets land, because you want to know where your rifle is shooting.

I’m going to test two air rifles this way. I’ll allow no less than a day between shots, and perhaps more. When I’m done, I’ll publish both groups for all to see. I’d like it if some of you could join me in this small experiment.

author avatar
Tom Gaylord (B.B. Pelletier)
Tom Gaylord, also known as B.B. Pelletier, provides expert insights to airgunners all over the world on behalf of Pyramyd AIR. He has earned the title The Godfather of Airguns™ for his contributions to the industry, spending many years with AirForce Airguns and starting magazines dedicated to the sport such as Airgun Illustrated.

69 thoughts on “First shot: Yes or no? Part 1”

  1. No fowling shot? Does that mean no birds were shot that day? Sometimes a fouling shot can improve accuracy.

    First shot from a cold barrel is a good test. I’ve also noticed poi changes taking a warm gun (from the cabin or warm vehicle) into a cold environment (40-50 degree temperature difference). I suspect it might be glass in the scope shifting/shrinking rather than a warm barrel in a cold environment but I’m not sure.


    • kevin

      The change you are talking about is caused by dissimilar materials and sometimes uneven heating (or cooling).

      Different materials have different expansion coefficients. The dimensions change to a different degree for any given change in temp. This causes things to shift or warp.

      Count yourself lucky if your rifle does not change P.O.I. enough to worry about if you shoot at a wide range of temperatures.

      You may also find some rifles that like to be shot on overcast days or in the shade. That way you don’t have the sun coming and going on the rifle. The temperature stays more constant. Ever notice that the finish of the different parts cause a noticeable temperature difference to the touch when the sun gets on the rifle ? Sometimes you can see the P.O.I. creeping in a particular direction when the sun is hitting the rifle from one direction for very long.

      I have one rifle that was really squirrely with temperature changes. P.O.I. moved a lot. Sometimes it would jump suddenly. Always had to keep zeroing it. Never shot the same on different days if the conditions were not the same (or very close). Took a long time, but I found the problem the caused the sudden jump and most of the shifting.


      • twotalon,

        Great observations. This is the type of first hand experience that keeps me coming back to this blog.

        Here’s my two cents.

        Different power plants should also be taken into consideration when chasing a poi shift. A cold barrel vs. hot barrel in a firearm will almost always shoot to a different poi. Hot loads (think varmint loads) and rapid fire has repopularized (is that a word?) bull barrels, fluted barrels, stainless barrels, etc. all designed to dissipate or slow the rate of heat.

        I’m not convinced that the typical airgun (excluding big bores here since I have no experience with them) heats a barrel enough to affect poi but I don’t know for certain. I know that with most of my springers they shoot to a different poi with the first shot or two or three even without a drastic temperature difference from where the gun was to where it was brought out to shoot. I suspect this has to do with the heat in the compression chamber loosening up lubes and or the seal but I don’t know this for a fact.

        Drastic temperature differences, as stated above, can result in drastic poi shifts with pcp’s and springers. This shift can continue through a shooting session as the guns cools to ambient temperature. This makes me suspect the scope but again I don’t know this for a fact.


        • kevin…

          With a PCP you might even have barrel cooling when shooting. When the high pressure air expands in the bore, the air will get colder. So how do we see to what degree that this offsets the friction caused by the pellet rubbing the bore ? Attatch a temp sensor to the barrel then blast off a few shots to see what if any temp change happens ?

          With springers, the air is compressed and heated, then is decompressed and cooled. Not going to guess on the net result for that one.

          I do know that I never notice any temp change for the barrel no matter which kind of airgun I shoot. Any change can’t be much. Probably so minor that it won’t make a hoot of difference. I would suspect more of a scope thing and metal stress caused by changing temperatures (ambient temp and sunlight heating).

          Excluding heating/cooling factors, with springers it is probably more of conditioning of the power plant after sitting a while. Some springers are more predictable after sitting than others as to what is going to happen with the first shot or two , and what is going to happen with continued shooting.


          • twotalon,

            I’ve noticed less poi change when shooting pcp’s for the first and second shot that with springers. Given time while shooting a pcp outdoors in cold weather the poi will wander. Back to blaming the scope? I don’t know.

            ” Some springers are more predictable after sitting than others as to what is going to happen with the first shot or two , and what is going to happen with continued shooting.”

            Couldn’t agree more. High powered springers and those with leather piston seals seem to be the most unpredictable for me. Those with less lube like a typical FWB300 don’t seem to have this problem.

            For all these reasons I’ve learned to pick up a pcp when it’s cold outside and I will only get one or two quick shots on a pest.


            • kevin…

              I have seen all kinds of things happen. You have to get to know each gun and what is going to happen.
              Can take a while to figure it all out…..at least as relates to how and when a gun will be used.

              I was particularly happy with my 97k when I took it outside on a frosty morning and let it sit for a half hour before shooting. Mid day the day before it had been pretty comfortable. So quite a bit of temp change in one day. From the first shot on, it dropped them all in exactly the same place where they belonged (if I didn’t botch the shot). I have some rifles that don’t work out this way.

              It’s really a matter of getting to know the rifle. Make no rules universal. Let each rifle make it’s own rules. You can’t force it to be different than what it is.


                • Kevin……….

                  Hawke 3-9X40. It’s the one that P.A. is often sold out of.

                  If the temp change had been more or if I had been shooting farther there might have been enough difference to see it. Also if I had left the gun out all night there might have been enough change to see it.
                  I have some other guns that need to be shot a time or two if they have been sitting overnight even with no temp change. There is no MV change though. Just something a little different that shows up only on the target.

                  Had one scope on my Talon, and stuck it in the fridge for an hour. Pulled it out and stuck it in a gun vise and pointed it at a small knot on a tree out back . Rifle and scope kept sweating and fogging, and was hard to see through the scope. Went back every 20 min or so until it got back up to around room temp. Crosshairs moved slowly to the left about 1/2″ during that time.(25 yds.)


  2. Hello B.B. and Airgunners. First, I must say your Savage Model 1920 is a thing of beauty. I have always loved the Mauser action on fire arms. The calibre of .250-3000 would indeed make this a sweet target gun too. As for hunting, I was wondering what game you would pursue with it? The accuracy the target shows us would make this rifle more then capable of whatever game would be appropriate. The one and only hunting I know is with a 12 gauge Remington Fieldmaster, trying to bring down ducks, geese pheasants, and partridge. I have zero big game experience.
    As for the cold barrel shooting with an air gun, I have noticed this to the extent I shoot at a point just off the target I want to shoot for group or score. However, as you noted, this is not possible with one shot. The other day when shooting at a starling about 20 meters away, I made an excellent shoot, but missed the mark. Result? Starling gone. I have two apple trees and starlings love destroying fruit crops up and down the Okanagan Valley in B.C. and America. They cause hundreds of thousands of dollars in spoilt fruit every year. So, knowing where my gun shoots ‘cold’ would be a very beneficial exercise to pursue.
    Last, but certainly not the least, seeing the engine of Duskwhit’s Dream finally realized. I have read about a few people attempting what he has done on a much smaller scale. Using available parts from air guns, and making a few with lathe and milling machine. Never attaining results Duskwhit has shown us in the one picture seen at the beginning of todays blog. Job well done Sir. After three years in the making, I suppose I can wait a few more weeks to see the completed rifle, and the first of many groups.
    On the subject of Bert Munroe, the New Zealand motorcyclist who did amazing things with an old Indian motorcycle. There is a movie out called ‘The Worlds Fastest Indian’ starring Anthony Hopkins. A very enjoyable move I would recommend.

    • America? That is a large area. I have no doubt starlings are ravaging crops all over the United States and Canada. However, the Okanagan Valley runs from southern British Columbia in Canada, through to Washington State in the U.S. Cottage wineries and orchards dot the landscape on both sides of the border. We live in two countries with the world’s longest undefended border. At places south of Vancouver, Zero Avenue runs for 30 miles in B.C.. A simple ditch with a few boundary markers every few miles to let one know they are on the 49th.Parallel. Across said ditch is Washington State, U.S.A. I would hope the status quo will remain for future generations to enjoy.
      Caio– Titus

    • Titus,

      The 250 Savage is a wonderful deer and antelope round.

      As for “The World’s Fastest Indian,” We have the DVD and enjoy watching it. I read about Bert’s exploits as he was doing them, so I feel as if I have been a participant in his experience.


      • I’ll send you a photo of Bert’s Indian that I snapped at Invercargo (spelling?) on the South Island when I did a motorcycle tour of NZ several years ago. It’s on display in a hardware store! By the way, the motorycle streamliner they used in the movie was equipped with a Ducati engine. His original slipstream fairing and Indian engine was bought by a private collector sometime after his record setting run at Bonneville. The one on display is a spare from the movie.

        As for accuracy for a “cold” air rifle, that FWB 124 always puts it’s first shot right where I’m aiming but you pose an interesting experiment. I’ll have to wait till the pistol range by my house opens again (it was closed yesterday) and try to get 10 shots off over a 3 hour period – or the time the range is open.

        Fred DPRoNJ

    • Titus Groan,

      The .250-3000 now commonly known as the .250 Savage is one of those wonderful cartridges that can be loaded as an ideal round for a broad range of game and varmints. A highly respected cartridge here in the USA. Been around a long time (100 years?). It started life out as a fast, flat shooting varmint load when loaded with an 87 gr bullet. It gained in popularity for shooting deer and antelope sized game when loaded with a little heavier bullet like 100 gr.

      I looked long and hard at this caliber when I recently was in the market for a varmint gun.


  3. A fellow South African (very good springer shooter) left his TX , that he tuned for FT, out overnight in winter, OK winter here is about -5deg C minimum and shot with it, all covered in frost, it had the same POI as the afternoon’s testing. The “conclusion” was that the less lubricant you use while still getting a a very smooth shooter, the more consistent it would be…

    Anyways use it or don’t use it…

    My best shots are almost always 15 or so pellets in, but i think it has more to do with my hold and trigger finger settling than the rifle…


  4. I sight-in “cold” and leave the arms (be it air or powder burning) in as similar an environment as when sighted-in, before taken afield on hunt day. The exception is when the weather is greater than 60F (which equates to early Fall hunts for where I live), where they are then always stored in-doors. This is true for my garden pest control 1377 moreso.

  5. Clean barrel/fouled barrel………..
    Know where that first shot (clean barrel) is going to land in relation to where any additional shots (fouled barrel) are going to land. Know how many shots it takes to get the bore into a stable fouling condition. Sometimes that first shot on a clean barrel will go to the same spot consistently, sometimes not. You may be able to allow for the P.O.I. difference, but it is not someting to be thinking about when hunting. The practical solution would be to not clean the gun until you have to. Muzzle loaders or smokeless burners using corrosive primers need to be cleaned after shooting, so you can’t leave them dirty unless you want to rot the barrel.

    Warm barrel/cold barrel….
    Does the P.O.I. move as you shoot it more? How hot does it have to get to cause problems ? It can fool you on the bench when doing a zero. Check it cold and fouled as it needs to be for first shot hunting.

    warm gun/cold gun….
    What kind of P.O.I. difference do you get when the temperature changes ? Check it to make sure you will not get any unpleasant surprises.


  6. This will be an interesting experiment. I agree that the first shot could have a physical reason with the gun for hitting where it does but I believe it is much more of a mental result. There have been too many times where I have nailed the x on the first shot and then been all over the place on subsequent shots for it to be all gun physics. Some is probably due to luck, even.

    I think that first shot does not have the expectations that the following shots do, and the shooter is more relaxed and unbiased (for lack of a better word). All following shots are mentally expected to do exactly what the first one did and this introduces expectations and tension in the shooter for the followup shot. I think this is why Victor says to forget the last shot, good or bad, and focus on the next one as if it were the only one. Hard to do. For some reason I forget a lot of other important stuff easier.

    I have noticed that if my first shot is good, usually the rest of my group will be better than if the first shot is bad. Then, after a couple groups, I settle back down until fatigue begins to set in.

    I wish there was a way to do this test so that the shooter is not aware of doing it because I think the next day we will be thinking about it and our expectations will be heightened and our anticipation will affect the shot.


    • Chuckj,

      My anticipation most certainly affected the way I shot the .250 Savage, shown above. As the shot count grew and the group remained small, the pressure built up. I didn’t want to screw up. That is probably why the final shot was pulled.


      • B.B., Chuckj,

        As a follow-up to my post on “Want”, I’d like to add something that I recall very well from my competition days. I started thinking about this after seeing Chuck’s post.

        When I competed I almost never shot for score. I mostly worked on improving in some specific area, so it was mostly about problem solving. My coaches taught me a great deal, but they didn’t teach me everything that I know. However, they did teach me how to be a better problem solver while on the line. Put it this way, my coaches would laugh at me if I ever came to them to tell them my score. They knew that practice scores and tournament scores were not the same. So there was never any pressure while practicing. I simply never thought about “how well I was doing” while practicing, other than what I might be doing right or wrong. I try to learn from my mistakes and capture my successes.

        I think because I never played games with myself while practicing, my practices resulted in good scores in matches. I was very goal oriented, but my goals had nothing to do with winning, or any particular score. I looked at the broader picture, and in particular breaking plateaus. I think that this is why I jumped over some scores/levels almost completely, as opposed to inching my way up. Of course, the higher you go the tougher these plateaus are to break, but this never changed how I thought about “practice”.

        This leads to one of the things that I love about airgun shooting, namely, the cost. The airguns are relatively cheap, but the ammo is VERY cheap. Given the time, I can shoot for hours and not give cost any consideration. So I shoot my airguns the way I used to practice for matches; I allow myself to focus on fundamentals and details, without stress, guilt, or anxiety because of expectations or want.


    • Chuckj, B.B.,

      I haven’t found a good way of explaining how one might solve the anticipation problem with shooting, but I’ve tried. You may recall a month or so back when I advised Matt61, who was also stressing over performance, to shoot a practice session (40, maybe 60 shots) where all he did was focused on the fundamentals but NOT scores or groups?

      When you “practice”, it shouldn’t be to prove to yourself that you can shoot a high score, or a tight group. I’ve said it before that “Want” has a place, but NOT while on the firing line. “Want” should direct you towards doing what it takes to solve problems. “Want” while on the firing line is a distraction.

      While shooting, relieve yourself of what you want, and allow yourself to analyze and study the finer details without stress, guilt, or want.


  7. B.B., your prayers are even more coveted than your blog (and that’s going some).

    J-F, thank you for the encouragement.

    Pete, it’s good to know you are getting better all the time.

    I have received an invitation to participate in a church activity, well an activity sponsored by the church. Later this month I may participate in an event that involves shooting a number of guns. The results of tomorrow’s CT-Scan and MRI will likely be the deciding factors. I rather hope I can participate. Although no specifics are mentioned, I also rather hope some big bore airguns are on the scene. It is close to home so I will plan to go even if all I get to do is watch.

    I see the price of the Gamo Zombie appears to be more in line with reality now.


  8. Edith our support guru,
    I have an odd thing happening that started the last couple days. Using IE9, with no add-ons enabled, when I bring up the Comments Feed in it’s own tab, the little rotating circle on the tab keeps rotating as if it’s still trying to load in the page. I’m able to access the comments ok and Task Manager doesn’t show any CPU cycles being taken but that little circle keeps going. It’s been going now for about 5 minutes. It doesn’t do this on any other tabs except the comments feed tab. Anyone else noticing this?

  9. BB,

    I’ve also noticed this effect. Most pronounced with my Desert Eagle .44 mag. First shot is always dead on and subsequent shots move around a bit. More with the 10″ barrel than with the 6″.

    Since I have a 9 yd range in my basement and can shoot out the back door allowing 25 yds, I’ll join along in your test as soon as I figure out which guns I want to use. How long will this test run, about 10 days?


      • Tom,
        I want to do this a little differently, subject to your approval. I have a target that has 30 bulls on it. There are 5 bulls in a row with 6 rows. That will give me two rows (10 bulls) for each of three guns. I intend to shoot three different guns, one for every other row, in one bull, sequentially, each day, at 10m for the next 10 days.

        The first two rows I will shoot with my IZH-46M pistol (PCP, single shot, blade sight), the second two rows with my IZH-61 rifle (springer, 5 shot clip, peep), and the last two rows with my Challenger rifle (PCP, single shot, peep) topping it off every shot. This way I’ll be able to identify every shot.

        The reason is that after the 10 days I want to see which days were different and if they were all different on that day. If I shoot a group of 10 with each gun I won’t be able to discern which day is which.

        I will be shooting indoors, with no wind, same lighting, constant 70 degree temperature and 45% humidity. Unfortunately I can’t control the barometric pressure.

        Does this sound acceptable to you?


  10. I think it is me, more than the gun. I have said in the past, when we talked about 5 shot vs 10 shot groups. I said then, for me anyway, I get tired/distracted when I shoot 10 shot groups. I have some bad concentration don’t I. lol But my first few shots are almost always better than the last shots. Same with springers, CO2s or multipumps.

  11. B.B.,
    This is a very interesting blog! I’ve noticed that with some of my airguns that the first shot, or up to possibly 5, can be very different from everything after that. And yes, it’s best to let your high power rifles cool down between shots to get practical accuracy.

  12. Savage does it again, and not even with the 110 action either! So is this a Mauser type action as TitusGroan indicated?

    I have wondered about the cold bore shot. Of course, you want to make the first shot count. But how to solve the fact that the first shot is often different from the following shots? I’ve had practical experience of this. First shot with my Savage 10FP at 100 yards was about an inch high relative to the following three which were in something like a .25 inch group. Whether because of seasoning of the bore, lubrication or heating, your first shot will be a little different. So IF your following group is tight and hitting where intended, how is it possible in principle to predict exactly where the first shot will go?

    By the way, I think I have the answer to why the Arsenal AK, according to one report, can shoot almost MOA with its first few shots and then open up to 4MOA after rapid fire of 60 rounds or so. Most rifles would probably lose some accuracy under that treatment, but this is kind of extreme. Apparently, the Arsenal guns have very thin barrels compared to most AR-15s. They would heat up faster, and that would presumably explain the loss of accuracy.


  13. For matches, fouling shots are an indispensable ritual, mainly of superstition, but they also get the bore consistent and seat anything that is loosened during cleaning and/or handling. I think it also helps the shooter settle down. Pulling the nth or nth-1 of n shots is par for the course for me, which is why I hate large group sizes :).

    For hunting, I would rather have mediocre groups as long as cold shots went to point of aim consistently than small groups after a fouling/warmup shot that goes way off target. It is a good idea NOT to clean before hunting if possible — a fouling shot in the woods is not exactly the best idea.

    I like that Savage — looks much better than a Weatherby to me :).

    • BG_Farmner,

      That Savage was a rifle I shot just because my gun buddy brought it out to the range. But when the first five shots I ever fired in it went into eight-tentch of an inch at 100 yards with factory ammo, I had to have it.

      I’m thankful that he wasn’t in love with it, nor did he stick me for what it’s worth. Believe it or not, A 1920 Savage costs more than a German-made Mark V Weatherby, these days!

      Compared to a .250 Savage, a .243 Winchester feels like a 30-06! This is the gentlest, straightest-shooting hunting rifle I have ever owned, and this one stays as long as I do — I hope. Last time I said something like that my prosperity turned around and I had to sell every gun I owned, plus 20 years of reloading equipment.


      • I normally hunt deer with one shot fired through the rifle. So, I have a cold “dirty” barrel. That one will be about the same as the next. You don’t often get more than one good one.


  14. Hi B.B!Today could be the day for THE transplantation and I am REALLY scared 🙁 !!!…This is the best blog/forum because everyone cares!We are all basically the same ,and we all feel the pain sometimes and joy eventually (gotta stay positive )….Can I ask you B.B. .Edith and all you guys /my friends to say a prayer for my mum or maybe just to think positive.And please if anyone dislike me please ,my mum is a doctor and now she need a heart transplant,she has cured a thousands and now she need help ….
    I love you guys ,I love this blog !
    Milan J. Vukovar Croatia

  15. I have a QB 23 in 22 which is one of the most accurate spring guns I own. The first two shots are always high. After that it puts one pellet on top of the last with remarkable consistency. The light trigger may be part of the problem, but I don’t think so. I do not see this with any PCP rifle that I shoot.

  16. Hi Guys newby here, I found this site while looking for info on twin piston air rifles as I plan on building one myself in the future, theres mention at the start of this thread of a link to duskwights fantastic looking build!!…however I cannot find the link, anyone know where it is please?

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    If you need to return an item please read our return policy.

    Learn About Returns

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Free shipping may not be combined with a coupon unless stated otherwise.

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