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Haenel 310 bolt action trainer: Part 2

by Tom Gaylord
Writing as B.B. Pelletier

Haenel 310
Haenel 310 is a different kind of trainer.

A history of airguns

Part 1

This report covers:

  • How does the magazine work?
  • Velocity
  • Oiled the leather piston seal
  • Re-test velocity
  • Smart Shot lead BBs
  • Conclusions

Today we look at the velocity of the Haenel 310 trainer. I was asked by one reader whether the Smart Shot lead BBs will work in the gun, so we will also look at that.

How does the magazine work?

Another thing I was asked by a reader is how the magazine works. You saw a picture of the mag in Part 1, but the angle was wrong for understanding how the balls feed. Here are three pictures that tell the whole story.

Haenel 310 mag with follower down
Here the steel ball follower is held down by the magazine feed pawl (arrow). This spring-loaded pawl is pushed down out of the way by the bolt as it passes.

Haenel 310 mag with follower up
When the feed pawl is pushed down by the bolt (arrow), the steel ball magazine follower springs all the way up as far as it will go. The follower is too large to escape the top of the magazine.

Haenel 310 mag with BB
A 4.4mm copper-plated lead ball has been loaded into the magazine. It’s held down by the feed pawl, but when the pawl is pushed down (out of the way) by the bolt, the BB springs up and out of the magazine by a foot or more, unless it is captive inside the breech.


I’ll begin with a test of the 4.4mm German-made copper-plated lead balls that I bought for the rifle. Most of these weigh 7.6 grains, but a sample was tested and ranged from 7.5 to 7.8 grains. They velocity averaged 326 f.p.s., which is on the low side for this particular rifle. The low was 237 f.p.s. and the high was 360 f.p.s., so a spread of 123 f.p.s.

Oiled the leather piston seal

I then dropped 5 drops of Crosman Pellgunoil down the muzzle and let the rifle stand on its butt for a couple hours. Following that I got these results.

Re-test velocity

After oiling and waiting a few hours, ten 4.4mm balls averaged 321 f.p.s. The low was 268 f.p.s. and the high was 355 f.p.s., so the spread was still large, at 87 f.p.s.

Smart Shot lead BBs

Now that you understand how the magazine works, you can see that the size of the ball is important. So our reader was wise to wonder whether Smart Shot BBs will work. But they do! Smart Shot BBs that weigh an average 7.6 grains averaged 341 f.p.s. The sprtead went from a low of 296 f.p.s. to 359 f.p.s. That’s 63 f.p.s., so Smart Shot BBs have a tighter spread than 4.4mm balls in this particular 310.


This was a valuable test that showed us several things. First, we learned out the balls feed through the magazine, and that helps us understand the operation i of the airgun a little better.

Next we discovered that the gun was not shooting slow without oil. Oil actually slowed it a little, though it did become more consistent.

Finally, we find that Smart Shot BBs not only work in ther 310 mechanism — they probably work better than the ammo that’s made for the rifle. Of course the accuracy test will be where that is confirmed.

This is a BB gun in the same category as other BB guns, so I will test it at 5 meters first. If it has enough accuracy I may back up to 10 meters, as well

30 thoughts on “Haenel 310 bolt action trainer: Part 2”

  1. Thanks for the top view of the magazine.
    In the photo you posted in part 1, the feed pawl pivot pin looked like a BB , and that’s what threw me off.
    With the low power was there any sign of dieseling with the pelgun oil?

    Neat older rifle.

  2. Tom,
    I just wanted to get in early this morning to say thanks again for getting me in touch with Kevin Lentz. I contacted him last week and he invited me to come to his place to try out some of his guns. Saturday morning I drove to his house(10 blks. from my house) and met up with he and his good friend Eric. I was able to shoot several different styles of rifles and stocks(Tyrolian? That was a little different). We chatted and shot and I might just have learned a little bit! I mentioned to Kevin that I am amazed at the quality and quantity of information about airgunning you have made available to all of us out here. I don’t know how I would have been able to really get into airgunning without the help and knowledge of you and Kevin and all the others out there who are so willing to share with those of us who haven’t been there, yet. Thanks Tom


  3. BB,
    I suspect that if the 310 was shot a bunch that the shot spread would tighten up. I suspect that there is corrosion, dust, etc that is getting in the way of good performance. I am not suggesting that you spend a day shooting the thing. I suspect you could find better ways (or more fun ways) to use your time.

    I am excited about the Texas Airgun Show. Let me know what I can do to help.

    David Enoch

  4. B.B.,

    I have (unplated) lead shot that is a reasonably snug fit for the bore of my Haenel, but I’ll be excited if the Smart Shot BBs work well for you. I am assuming they are slightly smaller than your copper clad lead shot and therefore a loose fit in the rifle, but hey, that tighter velocity spread is promising. Apparently air blowing past the ball in the barrel isn’t an issue.

    You have me starting to think it might be time to dust off my Haenel, although I’ll wait until after your next report to do so.


  5. Hm, I’ve had velocity on my mind. After another weekend, with my David and Goliath sling, I am making perceptible progress although my Goliath target is still not in any danger. At first, I sprayed rocks all over the scenery. Then I noticed they were all missing in the same place. I found them piled neatly together on the far side of the target which they had overshot. Here is a textbook case of precision without accuracy. Then, the other day, a slight modification allowed me to hit Goliath a few times? The secret? I was using too much power trying to whip the rock as hard as I could. So, a reduction in power increased accuracy! Here is further proof if any were needed that shooting is related to just about everything.


    • Matt61,

      Very interesting stuff for sure. What do you use for rocks and do you hand select them and maybe even weigh them? If it were me, I would do both and look for smooth river rocks that are found in the “islands” that form on a small river or stream. Concretion’s? I have seen them in abundance in shale and sandstone cliffs along the road around here. Golf balls? That would be very consistent. Anyways,….just some ideas. Way to go on getting them all to the same area,…..that say’s something right there about your ability. And,..I admire your “spirit” for experimentation.


      • I used to to a golf driving range with my sling. Could throw 300 yards with a vertical throw ( like a tennis serve) that put back spin on the ball. Lots of fun. Finally have time to get back to airguns. Fido3030

  6. I could not get a definitive fps on the multi-pump 32 pistol, probably because the patch for the roundball also passed over the chrony, The numbers that I did get ranged from about 209 for 10 pumps to 237 to 250 and one 289. I have also made up a rifle from a Powermaster 66 with a 12″ barrel so I’ll have to see what I get with that since the 66 pump stroke is longer. In addition to the .32 multi-pump pistol, I also cut the barrel of a $15 Daisy 880 pawn store find and put a copper smoothbore barrel on it. I was getting consistent 158 to 163 fps from that. At about 6 yards in my apartment, I got a 1/2 ” and 3/4″ groups until things went haywire on the last group. I’m gluing a fiber optic insert from the original front sight on my improvised sights to see if that helps. In many ways, my improvised gun seems similar to this Haenel 310. I also got to shot a 95 year old Haenel springer with 177 H&N Field Target 8.64 pellets. The bore was a bit large as the pellets deep seated themselves without any assistance from me. The gun was very fragile but fun to shoot with a good trigger. Don’t know what kind of groups I was getting because I was shooting at spinners. Most fun I’ve had with airguns for a while :}

  7. Apologize if I’ve already asked this. Is there a 2016 air gun show schedule? Planning on making it to Arkansas show on 29 – 30 April. When is TX show and where?


  8. Since I’m in St. Louis, I don’t know that I’ll make Roanoke or any of the back east shows, but I’d like to make it to the AR show (29 – 30 April) and the TX show. When / where is the TX show?


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